A healthy environment – personal and environmental hygiene is crucial for the health and well – begin of individuals and communities.
A. Some diseases due to poor personal hygiene
• Skin diseases
B. Some diseases due to poor environmental hygiene.
q Faecal borne diseases – easily spread in areas without community water supplies :
- Airborne diseases – easily spread in areas of overcrowding and poor living conditions :
- Insect – borne diseases –
- Specific diseases related to tobacco – smoking: These are depicted in the following figure; the major ones are shown on the left of the illustration.
- Oral hygiene
1. Mouth: The mouth should be rinsed with some pleasant antiseptic mouth wash. The tongue should be cleaned every morning by a tongue cleanser.
2. Teeth: It is very essential that the teeth should be regularly and thoroughly cleaned to ensure good digestion.
A proper wholesome diet is necessary not only for building of strong teeth, but also to ward off dental diseases.
The two most common dental ailments are:
(i) Dental caries (tooth decay) and
(ii) Periodontal disease (gum disease or pyorrehea).
- Teeth should be scrupulously cleaned at least twice a day, at night and in the morning.
- A good tooth powder or a tooth paste should be used with a moderate hard brush.
- If there are cavities in the teeth they should be promptly got filled up.
- A decayed or carious tooth should be removed at once so that it may not spread decay to others.
- When teeth fall away, artificial teeth should be used if one can afford to do so.
- Hands should be free from cracks and roughness.
- Scrupulous cleansing of hands with soap and water is very essentials to prevent spread of infectious diseases.
- Hands should invariably be washed before taking meals and during handling or preparing food.
Disease agent such as typhoid bacilli may be directly conveyed into the mouth if the hands are contaminated.
- If one looks at the number of diseases affecting the food one will come to appreciate that the foot is an indicator of health for the entire body.
- Ways of affecting foot:
(i) Some diseases like hookworm are transmitted through the skin of the foot, when people walk barefoot in muddy fields contaminated with human excreta.
(ii) In tropical countries like Bangladesh, filaria affects the legs and feet.
(iii) Leprosy causes severe deformities of the food; yaws affect the legs and feet.
(iv) Thickening of the skin is known as ‘corns’, ingrowing toe nails is another common ailments.
- In addition to the above , the feet may be
Subjected to excessive perspiration in some people – a condition known as ‘hyperidrosis’.
Excessive sweating with offensive smell is called ‘bromidrosis’. In all such cases, the feet should be washed with soap and water.
must be scrupulously clean by daily washing and carefully drying between the
- Stocking and shoes must be changed after each time after use; used stockings are washed and shoes should be aired.
What do you mean by personal hygiene?
What Factors Responsible for Personal Hygiene?
Describe the maintenance of personal hygiene at elderly person.